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The information for this brief History of the 13th Infantry Regiment, and the 105th Machine Gun Battalion and now the 109th Infantry (Mechanized) 28th Division, 55th Brigade was taken from the books. The 13th Infantry Regiment National Guard of Pennsylvania published by International Text Book Press, Scranton, PA. in 1924.

This being the 120th annivesrary of the 28th Infantry Division, the following article are to aquaint the citizens with a brief knowledge of this great and courageous Regiment,and also to help perpetuate the Keystone Division. What better time then now to know more about Pennsylvania fighting men of the NGP. Some units have an unbroken history dating back to 1747.

HISTORICAL BATTLE CREDITS OF THE 28th INF DIV

1. War of the Spanish Succession of 1747
2. Colonial Service under King of England
3. French and Indian War of 1763
4. Colonial Dress under the King of England
5. Revolutionary War of 1775
6. Brandywine
7. Germantown
8. New Jersey 1775
9. Pennsylvania 1778-1781
10.War of 1812--Federal Service before Washington
11.Mexican War of 1846
12.Civil War 1861 ------Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Shenadoah Valley, Maryland, Pennisula, Manassas, Antietan, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Virginia, Vicksburg and Appomattox.
13.Spanish American War 1828--Manilla, Malolos and Porto Rico
14.Mexico Border Service 1916--Camp Stewart, El Paso,TX (Federal Service only. No battle credit)

In telling the story of the 13th Regiment (NGP) the conditions under which the Regiment came into being were most remarkable. The great industrial crisis through which the country passed in 1877, out of which came, first the City Guard, and a year later the 13th Infantry Regiment found Pennsylvania practially without any efficent military system. The terrible experiences of Pittsburgh and other industrial centers around the country, that it was without adequate and internal defence against lawlessness, and disorder. Here in Pennsylvania with the organization of the 13th infantry really began what may be termed the renaissance of the Militaries. The revival of the military spirit and the creation of a real National Guard.

ORGANIZATION AND GROWTH

Domestic tranquility is the first necessity of all government, without it laws fails, and anarchy enues, the social conditions, which in the late summer of 1877, gave birth first to the Scranton City Guard and a year later to the 13th Regiment in this community and largely throughout the country. aftermath of the great civil war, brought about the readjustment of its finances on the basis of a resumption of special payments the effect was felt chiefly in the wage of the masses, the result of which was a nation wide condition of unrest, labor strikes and lawlessness.

August of 1877 saw for the first time in its history, the whole nations transportation, paralized by strikes and lawlessness for days, not a wheel turned on any railroad between Maine and California, except for a locomotive and caboose to carry the mail. locally the suspension of traffic had the effect of closing the mines in the Lackawanna Valley. Idling some 25,000 to 40,000 men. Great riots had raged in Pittsburgh and surrounding areas and also in Philadelphia. August first saw a body of riotors attemptt to loot the city of Scranton. It became apparent that each municipality must take care of itself., and be its own sole conservator of the peace, and a body of Civil War retiree's, about fifty in number went to the mayor and obtained permission to organize a citizens protection corps, it didn't take long and soon a body of some 200 men were enrolled, sworn in as special police by direction of the mayor. On the appearance of the mob, a detachment of this body of citizens about 38 in number hurridly assembled and,promptly,met them at the corners of Lackawanna and Washington Ave's. The mob suffered three (3) killed and twenty-five (25) wounded. The citizens corp had three (3) wounded. The next morning Mayor General Brinton, with the first division (NGP) arrived relieving the situation, the next five days the city of Scranton became a garrison of troops. The headguarters of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company on the corner of Lackawanna and Jefferson Avenues. Events had demonstrated the wisdom of old adage the Lord helps those who help themselves, and Scranton was eager to organize a military force under the laws of Pennsylvania, for its own protection.

THE SCRANTON CITY GUARD
At first the Governor authorized one company of fifty-five men, but when one hundred had been enrolled, and still more to join, he allowed a second company, and when he realized the character of the men who were anxious to join, he directed his Adjutant General to give them a Battalion of four companie.

On the 17th of September 1877, the Battalion Scranton City Guard (NGP) was duly mustered into service, this event deserves more than a mere historical mention. The citizens corp which has so histroically met and quelled the mob on the first of August were practically all in it. Social rank, wealth,business, professional life, all were cast aside, and all enlisted as private soldiers. Henry Martyn Bores, president of the Moosic Powder Company, the records show, was the first to enroll only because he reached the desk first. Next to him stood a mechanic from the car shops with his overalls on. There were lawyers, doctors, a preacher, mechanics and businessmen. A finer or more represenitive body of American citizens, than the ones in this battalion, could you find any where, after being sworn in. Lots were drawn for numbers of companies, which consist of field and staff officers, non-commissioned staff, Companies A,B,C and D. The active duty of the battalion began with the day of muster in. With only forty rifles borrowed from the D-L & Wrailroadcompany, to which they had to make cartridges, and no other equipment, they entered upon such active duty as it was made possible for them to render at once. The first armory of the battalion was the top floor of the old Second National Bank Building. (NOTE) That the organization was no holiday affair, especially since their services was without compensation, and at the cost of business and professional work, as well as sleep.Uniforms for the battalion, were supplied through a public subscription consisting of the fatigue blouse, pants, and cap of regular army. Two and three evenings each week were given to drill instruction under regular Army sergeants (Drill Masters) belonging to the regular regiment thenduty there. The state supplied a full outfit of Springfield breech loading military rifles, so that on the 5th of October, less then one month from the day of muster, the battalion made its first appearance under arms in a street parade through the city.

The next important step in the life of the City guard was the securing of an armory. On the 13th of November 1877, two lots were purchased from the Susquehanna and Wyoming Valley Railroad and Coal Company. 80x150 feet on the east side of Adams Avenue, midway of the block between Linden and Mulberry Streets, by Mayor Baies for $4,000. The deal was made to him as trustee, and on the 23rd of January 1878, he conveyed the same to the City Guard Association.

Captain Fred J. Amsden, a Veteran of the Civil War, and an architect drew up the plans for the Armory, on the 5th of October 1877. The contract for its erection was awarded to J.E.Chandler of Scranton. The armory was completed on the 31st of January 1878 and dedicated with a drill and opening. The prominent feature being an inside exercise area for parade practice by the Guard. Remarks were made by Honorable Stanley Woodward of Wilkes-Barre, Aretus H. Winton of the Scranton Bar.

The next important step in the Scranton City Guard was the honor of an invitation of the Wyoming Monument Committee to assist in the 100th Anniversary of the massacre of Wyoming. The occasion was held on the 3rd of July 1878. The battalion with full ranks and its newly organized band, was given the honor of escorting the President of the United States, President Rutherford P.Haynes ard Cabinet personnel from the station to the monument. At the close of his address at the monument the President sent word to kMayor Baies asking for the privilege of meeting all the Battalion Officers, and men. Accordingly the Battalion again escorted him and his staff to the residence of Mr.Payne Pettibone, where the battalion gave an exhibition of drill and closing with a dress parade. When the President addressed the battalion complimenting them highly and thanking them for their services. He then invited all to come and shake his hand. Ranks were temporarly broken, and every member of the battalion had the honor of shaking hands with the President of the United States.

To the Scranton City Guard, belongs the honor and credit of introducing instruction in the art of accurate shooting. This was the beginning of rifle practice in the National Guard of Pennsylvania. This was done wholly on the initiation of Mayor Baies, without orders from military authoriites higher up. Although both the brigade and division commanders cordially approved it. Unknown to the National Guard of Pennsylvania was the Office of Inspector of Rifle Practice, and was first known in the Scranton City Guard. Paymaster George Sanderson, was detailed as it Inspecting Officer.

In the spring of 1878, Mayor Baies secured from the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company the free use of the land, then all vacant, between Linden and Mulberry Streets, from Clay Avenue to the boundry line of Nay Aug park for a rifle range. Heavy expenses for ammunition was provided for by the companies themselves collecting all used shells, and reloading'them for future practice. Rifle practice was only faintly under way when the battalion received an invitation from the 20th Separate Company, New York National Guard at Bingington,NY. To send a team (twelve men per team) to compete with their rifle team on their range. With no hope of even a fair showing, Scranton City Guard sent a team to compete. Scranton team held the 20th to a tie on the 100 and 200 yard ranges but lost at the 500 yard range.

ORGANIZATION OF THE 13th REGIMENT
Legislature of 1878, passed an act, reorganizing, the Militia of the state, under this act, the veteran battalion and companies, were to be consolidated into regiment. And these into brigades, etc. It was this realized that the life of the Scranton City Guard as a separate organization must end. Permission was obtained to raise enough companies here and in their section to make a regiment and have its headquarters in Scranton, rather than being consolidated with other troops to make up a regiment. The work began a form a company in Honesdale, PA and given the letter "E", another in Carbondale,PA as company "F". Suequehanna Dept as Company "G" and one at Pleasant Valley as Company "H". Eight companies were formed, meeting the required number of companies needed. On the 19th of October 1878 these companies were assembled in Scranton. Inspected by Mayor Forehead and Phillips of the staff of General Seigfried. The regiment was duly mustered in as the 13th Regiment, 3rd Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania. With in a short time later Susquehanna Depot,Company "G", was removed from service due to the distance. Men were recruited in Factoryville, PA and assigned as Company "G". Soon after Company "H" of Pleasant Valley also was removed due to population changes.And "A" Company of the old 9th Regiment located in Providence was assigned to the 13th as Company "H".

FIRST ENCAMPMENT

The first important event in the history of the 13th was its first encampment. The National Guard of Pennsylvania had not yet established a syrtem of encampment instructions or a place for them to be held. The question of a desireable location for such an encampment occupied the board of officers for sometime. However, an offer by the Citizens of Long Branch, Next Jersey for an encampment site free of charge. Consent of the Governor of Pennsylvania to go out of State was granted, and consent of the Governor of New Jersey, to enter the state also was granted. On the 21st of Augurt 1879, the Regiment, seventy- five percent strong went to camp at Long Branch,NJ. Free transportation both ways was furnished by the D.L.& W Railroad and C. Railroad in New Jersey. Encampmemt included guard mounting, picket duty, regular morning drill and afternoon with a dress parade usually in front of one of the 1arge hotels. The Regiment was the "Lion of the week" at Long Branch. It had the honor of a review and address by the Governor of Pennsylvania and staff, who came to Long Branch for that purpose. The tour wound up on the 28th of August.

The report of Colonel Baies on the encampment so impressed the state authorities of the value of encampment of instruction, that annual encampment of the entire National Guard was provided for the next year, and are now a regular feature of the National Guard. Thus the 13th led the way in encampment of instructions as well as in rifle practice.

THE ARMY FAIR

The greatest social and military event in the history of the Scranton City Guard and the regiment was the Army Fair" Company "H" of Providence, assigned to to the regiment, gave it,its hearty cooperation. The battalion had accumulated a very large debt for up-keep of the organization. Ex Mayor Honorable Robert H.McKune was appointed General Manager. When the enterprise was announced with its purpose, the whole city,entered into the work with an amazing enthusiasm.The location of the fair was to be the new armory. But large as it was, double floor space was needed. This was obtained by building rough annexes all around the building. The ladies of the whole city were exceedingly active in every phase of the work. Decorating the booths, the walls, ceiling and everything. The armory was transformed into a veritable fairyland. Band concerts and singing, and evenings with a multitude of attractions that cost a dollar. The festival lasted from the 8th to the 17th of April 1880. Socially it was the red letter event of the year. Financially it was a great success.

FIRST STATE ENCAMPMENT

In 1890 the Regiment went into camp training as part of the 3rd Brigade Division (NGP) at Fairmont Park, Philadelphia,PA. For successive years its inspection reports, made mostly by regular Army officers stood from 90 percent to 98 percent, a record to be proud of. The enjoyment of perfect law and order throughout Pennsylvania was daily demonstrating the value of the National Guard as a conservator of the peace. It must not be supposed pease time meant less activity on the part of the Regiment. Personnel changes in the officer ranks and schools for officers were instituted. Colonel Baies working up to this time. Legislature apparently not appreciating the necessity and value of the National Guard.Colonel Baies, conceived the idea of summoning a convention of the officers of the Guard throughout the state to discuss the needs of the organization and secure cooperation in securing them. With permission from the General commanding the Division he sent out letters to all officers inviting them to meet in convention at Philadelphia, PA. A large majority of the officers assembled, at the time and place suggested, General Beaver was elected President of this unique body. propably the first of its kind to come together in the whole country. This convention developed into an annual affair and later into a state association and then into a similiar annual National Convention of National Guard Officers. The 13th Regiment, through Colonel Henry M. Baies, another one of the many constructive monuments for the betterment of the National Guard. In 1885 the Regiment encamped, with the 3rd Brigade at Gretna. Regimental Drill Competition was instituted that year. A series of battalion movements were prescribed. The Battalions were judged on points. Number present, precision and correctness of movements. The 13th carried off the honors. A feature of the year was the appearance of the Division in the parade on the occasion of the inaugeration of President Cleveland. Also, in 1885 the 13th had the accession of the coampany organized in 1884  in Providence and it became Company "I". Giving the 13th nine (9) Companies. Also in 1885, Company "F", Carbondale was disbanded. A new Company organized in Stroudsburg with the same letter "F"

In 1886 the annual encampment was by regiments. The 13th had its tour in Stroudsburg 10-17th July, its roster numbered thirty-five officers and four hundred twenty-one enlisted men. This was the first regimental encampment and was more beneficial in the way of instructions than the larger encampments.It gave the commander the responsibility of independent command. And its staff officers, the duties and responsibilities of their departments. The camp proved a great success in every respect.

Another experience in the history of the Regiment was participation in the celebration of the centennial anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution of the United States at Philadelphia on the 16th of September 1887. Another feature of 1887 was the change of the arms of the 13th. From the old 50 caliber to the new model V.S. A breechloading 45 caliber rifle.

In 1889 theencamment was by regiments. The 13th encamped atLake Ariel, 18 to 25 July. In 1890 Company "I" Providence was disbanded. On April 22,1892 Company "G" was disbanded and a new Company "G" was organized in Montrose in 1893. The 13th took part with the N.G.P. in the inaguarel parade at Washington on March 4th. July 22-29th the 13th held Reginiental encampment at Montrose, Pa. In 1894 the Regiment was organized into 2 battalions.During the following 4 years the Regiment made no changes. Just a routine period. On May 13, 1898 the 13th Regiment was mustered into service of the United States for the Spanish-American War.


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